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Doomsday Predictions

Ever since the time of Jesus, there have been Christian Doomsday Sects claiming the immediacy of Jesus' Second Coming or that the world was about to end. Jesus set this expectation when he said at Matthew 16:28:

"Truly I say to YOU that there are some of those standing here that will not taste death at all until first they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom.”

Speculation that the end was near was common amongst Jesus followers, as shown at John 21:21,22:

"Accordingly, when he caught sight of him, Peter said to Jesus: “Lord, what will this [man do]?” Jesus said to him: “If it is my will for him to remain until I come, of what concern is that to you? You continue following me.” In consequence, this saying went out among the brothers, that that disciple would not die. However, Jesus did not say to him that he would not die, but: “If it is my will for him to remain until I come, of what concern is that to you?”

In every century since, people have devoted their lives to the expectation that the end would be in their lifetime.

The following list is from the website abhota.info

2nd Century
The Montanists believed that Christ would come again within their lifetimes and establish a new Jerusalem at Pepuza, in the land of Phrygia. Montanism was perhaps the first bona fide Christian doomsday cult. It was founded ca. 156 AD by the tongues-speaking prophet Montanus and two followers, Priscilla and Maximilla. Despite the failure of Jesus to return, the cult lasted for several centuries. Tertullian, who once said "I believe it just because it is unbelievable" (a true skeptic if ever there was one!), was perhaps the most renowned Montanist. (Gould p.43-44)

Rome celebrated its thousandth anniversary this year. At the same time, the Roman government dramatically increased its persecution of Christians, so much so that many Christians believed that the End had arrived. (Source: PBS Frontline special Apocalypse!)

Hilary of Poitiers predicted the world would end in 365. (Source: Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance)

The Donatists, a North African Christian sect headed by Tyconius, looked forward to the world ending in 380. (Source: American Atheists)

Late 4th Century
St. Martin of Tours (ca. 316-397) wrote, "There is no doubt that the Antichrist has already been born. Firmly established already in his early years, he will, after reaching maturity, achieve supreme power." (Abanes p.119)

Roman theologian Sextus Julius Africanus (ca. 160-240) claimed that the End would occur 6000 years after the Creation. He assumed that there were 5531 years between the Creation and the Resurrection, and thus expected the Second Coming to take place no later than 500 AD. (Kyle p.37, McIver #21)
Hippolytus (died ca. 236), believing that Christ would return 6000 years after the Creation, anticipated the Parousia in 500 AD. (Abanes p.283)
The theologian Irenaeus, influenced by Hippolytus's writings, also saw 500 as the year of the Second Coming. (Abanes p.283, McIver #15)

Apr 6, 793
Elipandus, bishop of Toledo, described a brief bout of end-time panic that happened on Easter Eve, 793. According to Elipandus, the Spanish monk Beatus of Liébana prophesied the end of the world that day in the presence a crowd of people. The people, thinking that the world would end that night, became frightened, panicked, and fasted through the night until dawn. Seeing that the world had not ended and feeling hungry, Hordonius, one of the fasters, quipped, "Let's eat and drink, so that if we die at least we'll be fed." (Abanes p. 168-169, Weber p.50)

Sextus Julius Africanus revised the date of Doomsday to 800 AD. (Kyle p.37)
Beatus of Liébana wrote in his Commentary on the Apocalypse, which he finished in 786, that there were only 14 years left until the end of the world. Thus, the world would end by 800 at the latest. (Abanes p.168)

Bishop Gregory of Tours calculated the End occurring between 799 and 806. (Weber p.48)

The prophetess Thiota declared that the world would end this year. (Abanes p.337)

Mar 25, 970
Lotharingian computists foresaw the End on Friday, March 25, 970, when the Annunciation and Good Friday fell on the same day. They believed that it was on this day that Adam was created, Isaac was sacrificed, the Red Sea was parted, Jesus was conceived, and Jesus was crucified. Therefore, it naturally followed that the End must occur on this day! (Source: Center for Millennial Studies)

Bernard of Thuringia calculated that the end would come in 992. (Randi p.236)

The Feast of the Annunciation and Good Friday also coincided in 992, prompting some mystics to conclude that the world would end within 3 years of that date. (Weber p.50-51)

There are many stories of apocalyptic paranoia around the year 1000. For example, legend has it that a "panic terror" gripped Europe in the years and months before this date. However, scholars disagree on which stories are genuine, whether millennial expectations at this time were any greater than usual, or whether ordinary people were even aware of what year it was. An excellent article on Y1K apocalyptic expectations can be found at the Center for Millennial Studies. (Gould, Schwartz, Randi)

After Jesus failed to return in 1000, some mystics pushed the date of the End to the thousandth anniversary of the Crucifixion. The writings of the Burgundian monk Radulfus Glaber described a rash of millennial paranoia during the period from 1000-1033. (Kyle p.39, Abanes p.337, McIver #50)

Various Christian prophets foresaw the Antichrist coming in 1184. (Abanes p.338)

Sep 23, 1186
John of Toledo, after calculating that a planetary alignment would occur in Libra on September 23, 1186 (Julian calendar), circulated a letter (known as the "Letter of Toledo") warning that the world was to going to be destroyed on this date, and that only a few people would survive. (Randi p.236)

Italian mystic Joachim of Fiore (1135-1202) determined that the Millennium would begin between 1200 and 1260. (Kyle p.48)

Pope Innocent III expected the Second Coming to take place in 1284, 666 years after the rise of Islam. (Schwartz p.181)

Followers of Joachim of Fiore (the Joachites) rescheduled the End to 1290 when his 1260 prophecy failed. (McIver #58)

In 1147 Gerard of Poehlde, believing that Christ's Millennium began when the emperor Constantine came to power, figured that Satan would become unbound at the end of the thousand-year period and destroy the Church. Since Constantine rose to power in 306, the end of the Millennium would be in 1306. (Source: Christian author Richard J. Foster)

Another Joachite doomsday date. (McIver #58)

Czech archdeacon Militz of Kromeriz claimed the Antichrist was alive and well and would manifest himself between 1363 and 1367. The End would come between 1365 and 1367. (McIver #67)

The Millennium would begin in 1368 or 1370, as foreseen by Jean de Roquetaillade, a French ascetic. The Antichrist was to come in 1366. (Weber p.55)

Arnold of Vilanova, a Joachite, wrote in his work De Tempore Adventu Antichristi that the Antichrist was to come in 1378. (McIver #62)

Feb 14, 1420
Czech Doomsday prophet Martinek Hausha (Martin Huska) of the radical Taborite movement warned that the world would end in February 1420, February 14 at the latest. The Taborites were an offshoot of the Hussite movement of Bohemia. (McIver #71, Shaw p.43)

The beginning of the Millennium, according to some 15th Century mystics. (Mann p. ix)

ca. 1504
Italian artist Sandro Botticelli wrote a caption in Greek on his painting The Mystical Nativity: "I Sandro painted this picture at the end of the year 1500 in the troubles of Italy in the half time after the time according to the eleventh chapter of St. John in the second woe of the Apocalypse in the loosing of the devil for three and a half years. Then he will be chained in the 12th chapter and we shall see him trodden down as in this picture." Apparently, he thought he was living during the Tribulation, and that the Millennium would begin in three and a half years or so, which is understandable given the fact that he is known to have been a follower of Girolamo Savonarola. (Weber p.60)

Feb 1, 1524
The End would occur by a flood starting in London on February 1 (Julian), according to calculations some London astrologers made the previous June. Around 20,000 people abandoned their homes, and a clergyman stockpiled food and water in a fortress he built. (Sound familiar? It's just like the doomsday cultists and Y2K nuts of today!) As it happened, it didn't even rain in London on that date. (Randi p.236-237)

Feb 20, 1524
A planetary alignment in Pisces was seen as a sign of the Millennium by astrologer Johannes Stoeffler. The world was to be destroyed by a flood on this date (Julian), Pisces being a water sign. (Randi p.236-237)

The beginning of the Millennium, according to Anabaptist Thomas Müntzer. Thinking that he was living at the "end of all ages," he led an unsuccessful peasants' revolt and was subsequently tortured and executed. (Gould p.48)

Stoeffler recalculated Doomsday to 1528 after his 1524 prediction failed (Randi p.238)

May 27, 1528
Reformer Hans Hut predicted the end would occur on Pentecost (May 27, Julian calendar). (Weber p.67, Shaw p.44)

Frederick Nausea (what a name!), a Viennese bishop, was certain that the world would end in 1532 after hearing reports of bizarre occurrences, including bloody crosses appearing in the sky alongside a comet. (Randi p. 238)

Anabaptist prophet Melchior Hoffman's prediction for the year of Christ's Second Coming, to take place in Strasbourg. He claimed that 144,000 people would be saved, while the rest of the world would be consumed by fire. (Kyle p.59)

Oct 19, 1533
Mathematician Michael Stifel calculated that the Day of Judgement would begin at 8:00am on this day. (McIver #88)

Apr 5, 1534
Jan Matthys predicted that the Apocalypse would take place on Easter Day (April 5, Julian calendar) and only the city of Münster would be spared. (Shaw p.45, Abanes p.338)

French astrologer Pierre Turrel announced four different possible dates for the end of the world, using four different calculation methods. The dates were 1537, 1544, 1801 and 1814. (Randi p. 239)

Pierre Turrel's doomsday calculation #2. (Randi p. 239)

ca. 1555
Around the year 1400, the French theologian Pierre d'Ailly wrote that 6845 years of human history had already passed, and the end of the world would be in the 7000th year. His works would later influence the apocalyptic thinking of Christopher Columbus. (McIver #72)

Jul 22, 1556
In 1556, a rumor was circulating that the world would end on Magdalene's Day, as recorded by Swiss medical student Felix Platter. (Weber p.68, p.249)

Apr 28, 1583
The Second Coming of Christ would take place at noon, according to astrologer Richard Harvey. This was the date of a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn, and numerous astrologers in London predicted the world would end then. (Skinner p.27, Weber p.93)

Cyprian Leowitz, an astrologer, predicted the end would occur in 1584. (Randi p.239, McIver #105)

The end of the world according to the sage Johann Müller (aka Regiomontanus). (Randi p. 239)

Martin Luther believed that the End would occur no later than 1600. (Weber p.66)

Dominican monk Tomasso Campanella wrote that the sun would collide with the Earth in 1603. (Weber p.83)

Eustachius Poyssel used numerology to pinpoint 1623 as the year of the end of the world. (McIver #125)

Feb 1, 1624
The same astrologers who predicted the deluge of February 1, 1524 recalculated the date to February 1, 1624 after their first prophecy failed. (Randi p.236-237)

Using the kabbalah, Sabbatai Zevi, a rabbi from Smyrna, Turkey, figured that the Messiah would come in 1648, accompanied by miracles. The Messiah, of course, would be Zevi himself! (Randi p.239, Festinger)

In 1578, physician Helisaeus Roeslin of Alsace, basing his prediction on a nova that occurred in 1572, foresaw the world ending in 1654 in a blaze of fire. (Randi p.240)

Believed to be a possible date for the end of the world, 1656 is the number of years between the Creation and the Flood. (Skinner p.27)

Final apocalyptic battle and the destruction of the Antichrist were to take place between 1655 and 1657, as per the Fifth Monarchy Men, a radical group of English millenarians who attempted to take over Parliament to impose their extremist theocratic agenda on the country. Not unlike the Christian Coalition of modern-day America! (Kyle p.67)

In his The Book of Prophecies, Christopher Columbus claimed that the world was created in 5343BC, and would last 7000 years. Assuming no year zero, that means the end would come in 1658. Columbus was influenced by Pierre d'Ailly. (McIver #77)

Joseph Mede, whose writings influenced James Ussher and Isaac Newton, claimed that the Antichrist appeared way back in 456, and the end would come in 1660. (McIver #147)

• As this date is 1000 (millennium) + 666 (number of the Beast) and followed a period of war and strife in England, many Londoners feared that 1666 would be the end of the world. The Great Fire of London in 1666 did not help to alleviate these fears. (Schwartz p.87, Kyle p.67-68)
• Sabbatai Zevi recalculated the coming of the Messiah to 1666. Despite his failed prophecies, he had accumulated a great many followers. He was later arrested for stirring up trouble, and given the choice of converting to Islam or execution. Pragmatic man that he was, he wisely elected for the former. (Festinger)

Deacon William Aspinwall, a leader of the Fifth Monarchy movement, claimed the Millennium would begin by this year. (Abanes p.209, McIver #174)

John Napier's doomsday calculation #1, based on the Book of Revelation. Napier was the mathematician who discovered logarithms. (Weber p.92)

Pierre Jurieu, a Camisard prophet, predicted that Judgement Day would occur in 1689. The Camisards were Huguenots of the Languedoc region of southern France. (Kyle p.70)

• Anglican rector John Mason calculated this date as the beginning of the Millennium. (Kyle p.72)
• The beginning of the Millennium, as predicted by German theologian Johann Alsted. (Kyle p.66)

Fall 1694
Drawing from theology and astrology, German prophet Johann Jacob Zimmerman determined that the world would end in the fall of 1694. Zimmerman gathered a group of pilgrims and made plans to go to America to welcome Jesus back to Earth. However, he died in February of that year, on the very day of departure. Johannes Kelpius took over leadership of the cult, which was known as Woman in the Wilderness, and they completed their journey to the New World. Fall came and went and, needless to say, the cultists were profoundly disappointed at having traveled all the way across the Atlantic just to be stood up by Jesus. (Cohen p.19-20)

• The beginning of the Millennium, according to Anglican rector Thomas Beverly. (Kyle p.72, McIver #224)
• The notorious witch hunter Cotton Mather was the Ken Starr of Puritan New England. When he wasn't out hunting witches, he was busy predicting the end of the world, 1697 being his first doomsdate. After the prediction failed, he revised the date of the End two more times. (Abanes p.338)

• The end of the world, according to some Puritans. (Kyle p.79)
• John Napier's doomsday calculation #2, based on the Book of Daniel. (Weber p.92)
• The date of the Second Coming, according to Henry Archer, a Fifth Monarchy Man. Archer made this prediction in his 1642 book The Personall Reign of Christ Upon Earth. (McIver #158)

The End, according to some Camisard prophets. (Kyle p.70)

The End, according to some Camisard prophets. (Kyle p.70)

The End, according to some Camisard prophets. (Kyle p.70)

Cotton Mather's end-of-the-world prediction #2. (Abanes p.338)

Apr 5, 1719
The return of a comet was supposed to wipe out the Earth, said Jacques Bernoulli, progenitor of the mathematical Bernoulli family. (Randi p.240-241)

Doomsday was to come between 1700 and 1734, predicted 15th century Cardinal Nicolas of Cusa. (Weber p.82, McIver #73)

Cotton Mather's end-of-the-world prediction #3. (Abanes p.338)

Oct 13, 1736
William Whitson predicted that London would meet its doom by flood on this day, prompting many Londoners to gather in boats on the Thames. (Randi)

In a vision, angels supposedly informed mystic Emanuel Swedenborg that the world would end in 1757. Few took him seriously. Ah, the 18th century, the Age of Reason! (Randi p.241, Weber p.104)

Apr 5, 1761
Religious extremist William Bell claimed the world would be destroyed by earthquake on this day. Since there had been an earthquake on February 8 and another on March 8, he reasoned that the world must end in another 28 days' time! Again, Londoners gathered in boats on the Thames or headed for the hills. When his prediction didn't come true, he was promptly thrown into Bedlam, London's notorious nuthouse. (Randi p.241)

Feb 28, 1763
Devout Methodist George Bell foresaw the end of the world on this date. (Weber p.102)

May 19, 1780
On this day in New England the skies mysteriously turned dark for several hours in the afternoon, causing people to believe that a biblical prophecy had come true and Judgement Day had arrived. In reality, the darkness was caused by smoke from large-scale forest fires to the west. (Abanes p.217)

The coming of the Antichrist, according to 14th century Cardinal Pierre d'Ailly. (Weber p.59)

The Second Coming, according to Irish orator Francis Dobbs. (Schwartz p.181)

The end of the world according to the Shakers. (Abanes p.338)

The end of the world according to the Shakers. (Abanes p.338) Charles Wesley, brother of Methodist Church founder John Wesley, predicted Doomsday would be in 1794. (Source: Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance)

The Millennium would begin between 1793 and 1795, claimed retired English sailor Richard Brothers, who called himself "God's Almighty Nephew." He was convinced that he would lead the ten lost tribes of Israel, and once said that God told him he would become king of England. He was eventually committed to an insane asylum. (Kyle p.73, McIver #301)

Nov 19, 1795
While campaigning for Richard Brothers' release, Nathaniel Brassey Halhead proclaimed that the world would end on Nov 19. (McIver #310)

Pierre Turrel's doomsday calculation #3 (See 1537). (Randi p. 239)

Destruction of the world by earthquake in 1805, followed by an age of everlasting peace when God will be known by all, as foretold by 17th century Presbyterian minister Christopher Love. He eventually lost his head, literally. (Schwartz p.101)

Pierre Turrel's doomsday calculation #4 (See 1537). (Randi p. 239)

Dec 25, 1814
Jesus was to be re-born on Christmas Day, according to the 64-year-old virgin prophet Joanna Southcott, who claimed to be pregnant with the Christ child. Witnesses claimed that she did indeed appear pregnant. She died on Christmas Day, and a subsequent autopsy proved that she was not pregnant after all. (Skinner p.109)

Oct 14, 1820
Southcott follower John Turner claimed the world would come to an end on this day. After this prophecy failed, John Wroe took over leadership of the cult. (Randi p.241-242)

The beginning of the Millennium, according to John Dilks. (Weber p.176)

Methodist Church founder John Wesley foresaw the Millennium beginning in 1836, the same year that the Beast of Revelation was to rise from the sea. (McIver #269)

Harriet Livermore's Parousia prediction #1. (McIver #699)

Apr 28, 1843
Although this date was not officially endorsed by the Millerite leadership, it was a popular belief among William Miller's followers that the Second Coming would take place on this day. (Festinger p.16)

Dec 31, 1843
Many Millerites expected Jesus to return at the end of 1843. (Festinger p.16)

Mar 21, 1844
William Miller, leader of the so-called Millerite movement, predicted through careful calculation that Christ would return sometime cbetween March 21, 1843 and March 21, 1844. He gathered a following of thousands of devotees. After the failure of Jesus to show up during this window, the cult experienced a crisis of faith and in the confusion began reinterpreting the prophecy and aggressively proselytizing. (Gould p.49, Festinger p.16-17)

Oct 22, 1844
It's Miller time again! Rev. Samuel S. Snow, an influential Millerite, predicted the Second Coming on this day. The date was soon accepted by Miller himself. On that day, the Millerites gathered on a hilltop to await the coming of Jesus. After the inevitable no-show, the event became known as the "Great Disappointment." (Gould p.49, Festinger p.17)

The Second Coming according to the Second Adventists, a group that formed from the remaining hardcore members of Miller's cult. The Second Adventists were the forerunners of the Seventh Day Adventists (Kyle p.91)

Another Second Coming according to the Second Adventists. (Kyle p.91)

Harriet Livermore's Parousia prediction #2. (McIver #699)

Aug 7, 1847
"Father" George Rapp, a German ascetic who founded a sect known as the Harmonists (aka the Rappites) and established a utopian commune in Economy, Pennsylvania, was convinced that Jesus would return before his death. Even on his deathbed he refused to give up hope for Christ's return, saying "If I did not know that the dear Lord meant I should present you all to him, I should think my last moment's come." It turned out that his last moment had indeed come, yet Jesus failed to show up. Rapp died on August 7, 1847. (Cohen p.23, Thompson p.283, Encyclopedia Britannica)

Yet another Second Coming according to the Second Adventists. (Kyle p.91)

You guessed it! Still another Second Coming according to the Second Adventists. (Kyle p.91)

The Crimean War (1853-56) was seen by some as the Battle of Armageddon. After all, Russia had plans to wrest control of Palestine from the Ottoman Empire. Perhaps it was this war that triggered the popularity of the "Russia invades Israel" scenario so popular among modern prophecy teachers. (McIver #437)

The end of 6000 years since Creation, and thus the end of the world, according to John Cumming of the Scottish National Church. (Abanes p.283)

Southcott follower John Wroe, who in 1823 tried (and failed) to walk on water and underwent a public circumcision, calculated that the Millennium would begin in 1863. (Skinner p.109)

The Anglican minister Michael Paget Baxter was an ardent date setter, a veritable Charles Taylor of the 19th century. In one of his earliest publications he predicted the End for 1861-1867. (McIver #348)

In another publication Michael Baxter claimed the Battle of Armageddon would take place this year. (Abanes p.338, McIver #349)

Another End according to Michael Baxter. (McIver #350)

Jun 28, 1870
The end of the world as per Irvin Moore's book The Final Destiny of Man, to be followed by Christ's millennial reign on Earth. He predicted that during this year, France would fall, and Jerusalem would become the capital of the world. (McIver #746)

Michael Baxter predicted another Armageddon in 1871-72 or thereabouts. (McIver #351)

The end of the world according to the Jehovah's Witnesses. This was to become the first in a long string of failed doomsday prophecies by members of this group. (Gould p.50, Kyle p.93) The Parousia according to the newly formed Seventh Day Adventists, a group founded by former Millerites. (Abanes p.339)

The end of the world according to the Jehovah's Witnesses. (Kyle p.93)

Thomas Rawson Birks in his book First Elements of Sacred Prophecy determined that the end of the world would be in 1880 by employing the time-honored Great Week theory. (McIver #371)

The end of the world according to the Jehovah's Witnesses. (Kyle p.93)
The end of the world according to some pyramidologists. (Randi p.242)
16th century prophetess Mother Shipton is said to have written the couplet:

    The world to an end shall come
    In eighteen hundred and eighty one.

In 1873, it was revealed that the couplet was a forgery by Charles Hindley, who published Mother Shipton's prophecies in 1862. This did not stop people from expecting the end in 1881, however. (Schwartz p.122, Randi p.242-243)

Northern Paiute leader Wovoka predicted the Millennium beginning in 1890. This prediction came from a trance he experienced during a solar eclipse in 1889. Wovoka was a practitioner of the Ghost Dance cult, a bizarre hybrid of apocalyptic Christianity and American Indian mysticism. (Gould p.56-57, p.69)

In 1835 Joseph Smith, founder of Mormonism, foresaw the Second Coming taking place in 56 years' time, or about 1891. (Source: exmormon.org)

The Millennium, according to Reverend Robert Reid of Erie, Pennsylvania. (Weber p.176)

Michael Baxter (he's baaaack!) wrote a book entitled The End of This Age About the End of This Century in which predicted the Rapture taking place in 1896. According to Rev. Baxter, 144,000 true Christians were supposed to be summoned to Heaven during this year. (Thompson p.121)

Charles A.L. Totten predicted that 1899 was a possible date for the end of the world. Interestingly, the infamous "NASA discovers missing day" urban legend has its roots in Totten's writings. (McIver #924)

Father Pierre Lachèze foresaw Doomsday occurring in 1900, eight years after the Temple in Jerusalem was to be rebuilt. (Weber p.136)
Followers of Brazilian ascetic Antonio Conselheiro expected the end to come by the year 1900. (Thompson p.125-126)

Nov 13, 1900
Over 100 members of the Russian cult Brothers and Sisters of the Red Death committed suicide, expecting the world to end on this day. (Sources: Portuguese article and this site)

A sect calling itself the Catholic Apostolic Church claimed that Jesus would return by the time the last of its 12 founding members died. The last member died in 1901. (Boyer p.87)
Rev. Michael Baxter foresaw the end of the world in 1901 in his book The End of This Age About the End of This Century. (Thompson p.121)

Apr 23, 1908
Once again, it's Michael Baxter. In his book Future Wonders of Prophecy, the Rapture was to take place on March 12, 1903 between 2pm and 3pm, and Armageddon was to take place on this day, which is after the Tribulation. (McIver #353)

Oct 1908
Pennsylvanian grocery store owner Lee T. Spangler claimed that the world would meet a fiery end during this month. (Abanes p.339)

May 18, 1910
Many people believed the arrival of Halley's Comet would spell the end of the world. Some thought that cyanide gas from the comet's tail would poison the Earth's atmosphere. In Germany, one could buy postcards depicting apocalyptic scenes bearing the caption, "End of the World on May 18". Con artists took advantage of people's fears by selling "comet pills" to make people immune to the toxins...or so they claimed. (Weber p.196-198, Abanes p.339)

19th century Scottish astronomer and pyramidologist Charles Piazzi Smyth concluded from his research on the dimensions of the Great Pyramid of Giza that the Second Coming would occur between 1892 and 1911. (Cohen p.94)

Oct 1, 1914
The end of the world according to the Jehovah's Witnesses. In fact, they viewed World War I as the Battle of Armageddon. (Skinner p.102)

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